Barrett esophagus (BE) is a disorder in which the lining of the esophagus is damaged by stomach acid. The esophagus is also called the food pipe or swallowing tube.
People with BE have an increased risk for cancer in the area involved. However, cancer is not common.
Barrett's esophagus; GERD - Barrett; Reflux - Barrett
When you eat, food passes from your throat to your stomach through the esophagus. The esophagus is also called the food pipe or swallowing tube. A ring of muscle fibers in the lower esophagus keeps stomach contents from moving backward.
If these muscles do not close tightly, harsh stomach acid can leak into the esophagus. This is called reflux or gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). It may cause tissue damage over time. The lining becomes similar to that of the stomach.
BE occurs more often in men than women. People who have had GERD for a long time are more likely to have this condition.
BE itself does not cause symptoms. The acid reflux that causes Barrett esophagus often leads to symptoms of heartburn. Many people with this condition do not have any symptoms.
Exams and Tests
You may need an endoscopy if GERD symptoms are severe or come back after treatment.
During the endoscopy, your health care provider may take tissue samples from different parts of the food pipe. These biopsies help diagnose the condition. They also help look for changes that could lead to cancer.
Your provider may recommend a follow-up endoscopy to look for cell changes that indicate cancer. People with Barrett esophagus are recommended to have follow-up endoscopy every 3 to 5 years, or more if abnormal cells are found.
TREATMENT OF GERD
Treatment should improve acid reflux symptoms, and may keep BE from getting worse. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes and medicines such as:
- Antacids after meals and at bedtime
- Histamine H2 receptor blockers
- Proton pump inhibitors
- Avoiding tobacco use
Lifestyle changes, medicines, and anti-reflux surgery may help with symptoms of GERD. However, these steps will not make Barrett esophagus go away.
TREATMENT OF BARRETT ESOPHAGUS
Endoscopic biopsy can show changes in the cell that may be cancer. You provider may advise surgery or other procedures to treat that.
Some of the following procedures remove the harmful tissue in your esophagus:
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a special laser device, called an esophageal balloon, along with a drug called Photofrin.
- Other procedures use different types of high energy to destroy the precancerous tissue.
- Surgery to remove the abnormal lining.
Treatment should improve acid reflux symptoms and may keep BE from getting worse. None of these treatments will reverse the changes that may lead to cancer.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if:
- Heartburn lasts for longer than a few days, or you have pain or problems swallowing.
- You have been diagnosed with Barrett esophagus and your symptoms get worse,
- You develop new symptoms (such as weight loss, problems swallowing).
Diagnosis and treatment of GERD may prevent Barrett esophagus.
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Reviewed By: Subodh K. Lal, MD, gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.